马可波罗体育

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    马可波罗体育

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    马可波罗体育GuoLihongResearchReportNo157,1335DuringtheNinthFive-YearPlanperiod,Ch,aswestartedfromalowlevel,ourinfrastructureisaweaklinkintheoveralldevelopmentofthecountry,whethercomparedwithindus,asinfrastructurehaspublicandexternalfeatures,itssupplyanddemandcannotbesimplydeterminedintermsof"meetingeffectivedemands",anamplevolumeanticipatingandspurring(byserviceandprice)Year,thestrategicadjustmentoftheeconomicstructure,withurbanizationasthefocus,menswillboledependsontwofactors:oneiswhethernon-governmentalandoverseascapitalcanbeintroducedintoconstructionprojects;,itisnecessarytodiscusstwocloselyrelatedsubjects:market-driveninvestmerconceptualbasistothisarticle,,the"theoryofnaturalmonopoly"isthebasisonwhichth,governmentinterferenceandgovernmentmonopolyarenecess,"governmentmonopoly"and"governmenttakingoneverything"’economicphilosophythat"thegovernmentnevermeddlesinanythingthatcanbedonebynon-governmentalorganizations".Therefore,itisnotsurprisingthatin,transportationandtelecommunic,,forthesehighwayswerefreeofcharge,and,thefirstprivately-ownedtollhighway,theDullesGreenwayinVirginia,tricity,TVAwasestablishedonlyafteradozenyear,theUnitedStatesisanationwherethetheoryo"naturalmonopoly",thegovernmentmustenactl,eventhegovernmenthastointerfereinormonopolizecertainsectorswiththeaimtomaintainsocialjusticeortoremedymarketfailure,ratherthantocarryouttheaprioriconceptthat"onlybyexercisinggovernmentalmonopolycanthecostofatradebelowered".InChina,nearlyalleconomicsectorswgeneraltheoryofseekingprofit(includingthetheoryofnaturalmonopoly).ureEuropeann,GermanytendedtoexercisestatemonopolyinproductionbeforeWorldWar’saviationindustry,forthegovernmentprovidedthatitmustoperateonmorethanhalfofthenation,whentheKohladministrationnegatedtheideaofall-roundgovernmentinterference,thereweresome4,elecommunications,,Franceturned21ofthe58governmentalenterprisesintoprivateonesbutkeptthoseinelectricity,gas,coal,aviation,,whichmadeitdifficulttoadapttoeconomicglobalization;theleaststhatatacertainstageofeconomicdevelopment,,norcanitbeexplainedbytherationalizationof"affirmingthepresentwhilenegatingthepast"....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.Amongthekeyindustries,,whichwas30%,23percentagepointshigherthantheprojected7%,326billionyuan,%,marilyduetotheimplementationofaseriesofstatemacropolicymeasures,whicheffectivelypushedupthegrowthofconsumption,,thereorganizationandrestructuringofthepetro,thesuccessfullistingofthetwogroupsoninternationalmarketsbroug,thehigherpricesofpetroleumandsomepetrochemicalproductsonthedomesticmarket,drivenupbyinternationaloilpricehikes,alsoplayedanimportantpart,theindustry’stotaloutputvaluewas30%,telecommunicationproductsandinvestmentproductsthrivedinbothproductionandsales,,thesalesofcellularphonesposted140%growth,%growth,andcolorTVscreens,electroniccomponentsandintegratedcircuitsalsogrewmorethan40%.Inadditiontothefast-growingdomesticdemand,thequickrecoveryinexcies,,42%,ygrew20%intheyear,%higherthanthatof1999,12percentagepointshigherthanthenationalaverage,,,,%,theoutputoftruckstotaled764,000,,000,%higherthan1999,,000,7%,heavy-dutytruckscontinuedtoleadthegrowth,risingby74%evelsof1999,%,light,%,%,bothcons,ironandsteelproductswere,theironandsteelproductionreboundedtosomee,asthemarketandpricesgraduallybecamestable,,theou,%,%%,thetotalsteeloutputwascontrolledwithi,%,,whiletheplate-piperatioroseto42%,,thoseinoversupply,suchassmall-sizedproductsandwirerods,,theproductsinshortsupplyondomesticmarket,suchaslargeandmedium-sizedproducts,%%respectively,0,pushedbyri,%,%,%.Amongthemainbuildingmaterials,cementtotaled580milliontons,%,whileplateglasstotaled180millionweight-crates,%.In2000,,%,,,,thetotaloutputvalueofthefiveprovincesandautonomousregionsofShaanxi,Gansu,Qinghai,%in2000,rket,increasingintensecompetitionandtherelevantstatepolicies,didmuchbetterintermsofrevenue,profit,,afastgrowthtrendappearedintheelec,350billionKWH,%,hydro,%,%%,ftheyear,onthebasisofmorethan10%,326billionKWH,%,especiallysomepower-consuminglargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterprises,werethe%ofalltheelectricityconsumedandcontributed70%,thereductionandexemptionofpowerconsumptionsubsidies,theconsolidationofruralpowerprices,thereducedpricesoftheruralhouseholdpowerconsumptionandthesharpriseoffuelpricesallcontributedtothefastgrowthofthedemandinthepowermarket....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

    马可波罗体育Aftertheoutbreakoftheinternationalfinancialcrisis,,thewwgrowth;emergingeconomieswillbecomethenewengineofworldeconomicgrowth;developedcountrieswillstrivetorejuvenatemanufacturingindustrywhiledevelopingcountrieswillaccelerateforeigninvestment,bothofwhichwillbecometwonewmajordrivingforcestopromotethedivisionofglobalvaluechain;"innovativedevelopment"willattractgreatattention,emergingindustrieswillgathermomentumfordevelopment,andcompetitionforpossessingaleadingpositionintermsofindustrialandtechnologicaldevelopmentwillbecomefiercer;globalenergystructureandthesupply-demandpatternwillwitnessprofoundchanges;theeasymonetarypolicyadoptedbydevelopedcountriestorespondtothecrisiswillcauseworldwideliquiditysurplusandintensifyfinancialfluctuationandinflation;globaleconomicgovernancemechanismreformwillbefurtherpromoted;andregionalintegrationgesrelatedtothe,externalenvironmentforChina’sdevelopment,andconakeinnovationstothestrategyandmodeofopeningupsoastobuildupnewadvantageswhileavoidingdisadvantagesandgetbetterpreparedtoparticipateinglobalcompeti,theworldeconomyexperiencedanover-one-decadephaseofhighgrowthandprosperity,especiallytheperiodfrom2004to2007,%,upnea:first,technologicalrevolutionrepresentedbyinformationandcommunicationtechnologiesandInternet;second,dividendofeconomicglobalization;third,peacedividendbroughtbydisintegrationoftheformerSovietUnionandendoftheColdWar;fourth,systemdividendresult,astheEuropeansovereigndebtcrisisbrokeout,,theUnitedStates,EuropeandJapan,allplungedintodepression,overallgrowthofdevelopedeconomiesinthepasttwoyearswasonlyslightlyhigherthan1%,,%,%%-%,highdeficit,fthedifficulty,anditisnoeasyjobfortheirgovernments,enterprisesandhouseholdstorenovatebalancesheetsthrough"de-leverage"(illustratedasbelow).Thetotaldependencyratioofglobalpopulationwillstarttorisesince2015,whichwillexertanegativeinfluenceoversavingrateandinvestmentrate.ZhangXiaojiLongGuoqiangOpeningtotheoutsideworldisafundamentalstatepoebasisofsummarizingthesuccessfulexperienceofthepastandadaptingourselvestoeconomicglobalizationatthetimewhenChinaisapproachingaccessiontotheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)isofimportantsignificancetocarryingoutChina’,Chinaimplementedthepolicyofopeningtotheoutsideworldanddidquitewellintakingadvantageofthefavorable,’sbasicexperienceinopeningtotheoutsideworldconsistsofthefollowing:First,nancialcrisistookplaceorwhentheinternationalsituationwasinturmoil,Chinapersistedinitsfundamentalpolicyofopeningto,Chinamadefulluseof“internationalanddomesticresourcesandmarkets”,activelyparticipatedintheinternationaldivisionoflabor,,,Chinaproperlycoordinatedinstitutionalrefo,thecountry’,themarketizationdomesticeconomyandthemajorrestructuringofforeigneconomicrelationsandtradeint,Chinaadoptedtimelystrategicmeasuresforfurtheropeni,itputforththe“strategyofexpandinginternationalmarketsharebyimprovingquality”,“marketdiversification”and“strategyofbroadly-basedforeigntradeandeconomiccooperation”.Furthermore,itpracticed“all-dimensional,multi-tieredandwide-rangingopeningtotheoutsideworld”.,Chinaconsistentlymainta,,struckagainstevasionofforeprinciplesguidingChina’conomicglobalizationasthebackdrop,Chinawillbe’seconomiclifeaswellasabasicpointofdeparturewhenweanalyz’sm,,oreandtheinternationalindustrialandtechnologicaltransferbringChinawithanhistoricopportunitytound,technologicalinnova’esintheinternationalstructureofdemandsthataretakingplacearoundtheworldandthusfailtocarryoutstructuraladjustmentdomesticallyandacceptinternationalindustrialtransfer,Chinawillfindthatitwillnotonlybeunabletoupgradeitsindustrialstructure,,thechangeintheaggregatesupplyanddemandpatternofthedomesticmarketcreatedfavorableconditionsforChinatograduallyopenitsdomesticionhaveyettobecompleted,insufficientdemandhascreatedtremenfteritsaccessiontoWTOandincreasetheshareChina’apitalandimportthoseresourcesan,whetherChinacantrulyreapthebenefitsofopeningitsmarkettotheoutsideworld,relaxingtherestrictionsontheentryofforeigncapital,andfurtherlinkinguptheinternationalanddomesticmarketswillenableChinatogiveplayonawi,thepresentdomesticmarketisstillplaguedbybarriersexistingbetweendifferentdepartmentsandbetweendifferentregions,iciesandestablishaunifiedlargemarketinthecountryduringthetransitionperiodafteraccessiontoWTOwilldirectlyaffectChina’soptimizationofresourcesallocationandeconomicdevelopment....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

    ,2015Withincreasingpressurefromeconomicdownturninrecentyears,China’%in2010to7%,guardagainstsystemicrisks,andwinfavorableopportunitiesforeconomicstructuraladjustment,,however,’seconomyexpandsonalargescale,policyeffectivenessdiminishes,,theacademiashiftsitsfocusfromstudyingtheimpactsoftheinternationalfinancialcrisisonfferentstagesofgrowth,andhasunderstoodandacceptedthefactthatChina’,policiesgraduallyputbothsupplyanddemandonhighagendaratherthanonlythelatterone;moreeffortsareputintoreform;steadyprogresscanbeseeninstreamliningadministrationanddelegatingpowertothelowerlevels,an,changesofsupplyanddemandaffecteachother;and,amongthefactorswithintricatecasualrelationships,toidentifyshort-termfluctuationsandtrend-displayingchanges,todistinguishmajorfactorswithsignificantimpactsonthewholepicturefromminorones,andmoreimportantly,tolocate,theaddedvalueoffinalconsumptionandofserviceindustryaccountforamuchhighershareofGDP,whichisconste,,thegrowthofinvestmentandindustrydependsonthesupplyofproductionfactorslikelabor,capital,andlandandontheupgradeddemandstructure,’seconomicadjustmentafterthefinancialcrisis,wecanfindfourimportanttransitionalchan,in2012,China’,in2013,,in2014,localgovern,thegrowthrateofglobaltradefellbelowthatofGDPin2012,omicgrowthrate,priceadjustmentandstructuralchange,butalsodeterminestherebalanceofChina’’’swo,th,,30%esentthemselves.——Laborcostincreasesasworking-agepopulationreduces,,%%,migrantworkersenjoyfastpayrises,%from2010to2014,%higherthanthegrowthrateofoveralllaborproductivity(seeFigure1).Migrantworkers,themainforceinChina’smanufacturingindustry,haveincomesincreasingataratesharplyhigherthanthatoflaborproductivityandeconomicgrowth,whichsqueezesthegrowthofenterpriseprofits,andmakesChina’smanufacturingindustrylesscompetitiveinternationallyandlessattractivetoforeigninvestment.——Astheaverageageoflaborrises,,,migrantworkersagedbetween16and40droppedto56%ofthewholegroupfromtheprevious70%,%.Particularly,%.Thechangeinagestructureofworkersactuallyreducesworkefficiency.——Thecapital-laborratiohassuchachangethatworkers’,althoughtherearestillruralworkersmovingtocitiesandindustry,;laborincomehasarisingproportioninthetotalrevenue;ngworkers’income,butthechangingworking-agepopulationisthedeterminantjudgedfromthetimesequence(Figure2).新濠在线体育WuJinglianDeflationinfa,thechan:,althoughtheamountofmoneysupplyisincreasing,thevelocityofmoneycirculation,nodoubt,isdrasticallydeclininginviewofth,itseemsunconvincingtosayth,weshouldnotonlypulltheeconomicgrowthbytakingthe"Keynesianist"measurestoincreasedemand,butshouldalsotapthepotentialofthesupplyside(enterprises)byadoptingthe"supply-sidepolicies".Inthisway,wecanbuildavirtuouscirclecharacterizedbysupplyexpansionanddem"supply-sideeconomists"constitutedaschoolofeconomiststhatemergedinthe1970sinWesterncountries,,the"Keynesian"demandpolicythathadbeenadoptedbythesecountriessincetheendofWorldWarIIwasnotworking,resultinginaphenomenonof"stagflation"didnotdependonwhetherdemandwassufficientasarguedby"Keynesianism".Instead,itdependedonwhetherthe"supply-side"(enterprises),themaingovernmentmeasuretopromoteeconomicdevelopmentshouldnotbetheadoptionofthefinancialandmonetarymeanstoincreasedemand;rather,itshouldbe"tiltingtowardthesupply-side"sothattheente,RonaldReaganadoptedaseriesofsupply-sidepoliciestoincreasethedynamismofAm,openingcompetition,,the"supply-sidepolicies"failedtoyieldgoodresultsincuttingdeficits,theydidbringaboutr,theeffortsmadebytheChinesegovernmentinmid-1998touseexpansionaryfinancialpoliciestopulleconomicgrowthbeganyieldingcertainresultsafterSeptemberthatyear,,them,thedependenceonthegovernmenttobeardebtsisalreadyvery,thegrowthofthenationaleconomycannotbebasedfortoolongo,itisunrealistictocontinuetotakemassivegover,itisalsoar,governmentinvestmentislikelytoproduceacertain"squeeze-outeffect",diturewillcontaintheenthusiasmofthenon-governmentalsectortoexpand,,toreversethecurrentdeflation,weneedtocontinuetoadoptexpansionaryfinancia,weshouldpaygreaterattentiontotheimplementationofthe"tiltingtosupply-sidepolicies"anddoeverythingpossibletomobilizetheenthusiasmofenterprisesandentrepreneurssothatthedynamicandgrowingenterprisescanbecomethe"engine"keoftheoldsystemsandthe"leftist"lementstoactivatethevitalityofthe"supply-side"terimplemented,theeconomyisgrowing,,Thequestionnowishowtofurtherimplementtheprinciplesofthe15"PartyCongressandbuildupnewgrowthpointsonthesupplysidebymorefirmlyrelyingonthestrengthofthemarket,,1believeworkinthefollowingareasisofutmosturgency:,inkeepingwiththeprinciplessetbythe15thPartyCongress,toadjustthelayoutofthenationaleconomy,improvetheownershipstructureofthenationaleconomy,explicitlydeclareandearnestlysupportalltheenterprisesthatmeetthe"threeconducive"requirements,andstriv,smallstate-ownedenterprisesshouldbetransformedintotrueenterprisesinkeepingwiththeprincipleof"freeingthesmall".Effortsshouldalsobemadetodoawaywiththeideologicalprejudiceanddiscriminatorypoliciesagainstthenon-state-ownedenterprises,toimprovetheiroperatingenvironmentandtoletthesmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesdev"plaque-changecompanies"amongthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterprisessothattheycanbecomemodernenterprisesthatmeettherequirementsspecifiedintheCompanyLawofthePeople,powersandresponsibilitiesbeclearlydefined,theircorporatemanagementbeseparatedfromgovernmentfunctions,eorganizedsoasto,thecapitalmarketisfloodedwith"junkstocks",speculationisoutofcontrol,illegalactivitiesarerampant,pricesdrasticallyfluctuateandthesofruleoflawandbecomeanfavorableinvestmentgroundwithinformationtransparencyandclearly-definedrulesofthegame.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

    LiZhaoxiAfterthestate-ownedenterpriseshavebeentransformedintocompanies,contradictionsemergedbetweentheso-called"threenewhuis"(thegeneralmeetingofshareholders,theboardofdirectorsandthesupervisoryboard)andthe"threeoldhuis"(thepartycommittee,thetradeunionandtheemployeescongress).ThestickingpointisthattheprovisionsoftheLawontheState-OwnedIndustrialEnterprises(1988)concerningthepositionsandrolesofthetradeunionandtheemployeescongressintheleadershipoftheenterprisesaredifferentfromtheprinciplesofthecorporategovernancespecifiedbytheCompanyLaw(1993).Accordingtotheformerlaw,theemployeesofastate-ownedenterprise"havetherighttoparticipateinthedemocraticmanagementoftheirenterprise"while"thestateprotectsthemasterstatusoftheemployees".Theemployeescongressanditsstandingbody,thetradeunioncommittee,constitute"abasicvenueforanenterprisetoexercisedemocraticmanagementandabodyfortheemployeestoexercisetheirrighttodemocraticmanagement".UndertheCompanyLaw,however,acompanyshouldbemanagedbymanagersundertheguidingandsuprisesaretocontinuetobeimplementedinthesolelystate-ownedcompaniesandthestateholdingcompanies,,webelieve,thepositionandrolesoftheemployeesintheChinesesocietyandintheirenterprisesshouldbeco,thestatusoftheemployeesisofatriplenature:(1)theyarethemasterofourcountry;(2)theyareanimportantstakeholdertotheirenterprises:(3),themasterstatusoftheworkingclcongressandthetradeunioncommitteeinthesolelystate-ownedcompaniesandthestateholdingcompaniesshouldcontinuetoworkasbodiesfortheemployeestoexercisetheirrighttodemocraticmanagementarguethatChinaisasocialistcountryandthelaboringpeoplearethemasterofthecountry:thatbywayofbeingthemasterofthecountry,theemployeesshouldenjoythemasteroyeesinthepolitical,thelaboringpeoplearethemasterofChina,andthismasterspositionshouldbemanifestedintheirrighttothehandlingofstateaffairs,,theemployeesofthesocialistenterprisess,theproperti-ownedenterprisesbutalsothecitizensofthePeoplesRepublicofChinawhodonotw,nomatterwhetherheworksinanenterpriseorwhetherheworksinastate-ownedenterprise,acollectiveenterprise,aprivateenterpriseoraforeign-fundedenterprise,,regardingthepropertiesofthestate-ownedenterprisesasbelongingexclusivelytotheemployeesoftheseenterpriseshasundoubtedlyinfringedupontherighsresponsibilitysystemundertheleadershipoftheenterprisecommitteeelectedbytheemployeeswasacoshingofthe"GangofFour",inwhichtheemployeescong,thissystemwasfoundtohavemanyshortcomingsandwrnationally-acceptedmoderncorporatesystem,itisonlynaturalthatastandardcorporategovernancestructure,itisnotadvisabletotreattheemployeescongressasanorganfortheemployeestoexercisetheirman,theemployeesasamajorstakeholdershouldparticipateindecision-makingbyele,amajordevelopmentinwesterncorporatetheorieswasthatwhiletheseniormanagersofacompanyshouldbeaccountablechieflytotheshareholders,theyshouldalsoberesponsibletotheotherstakeholdersofthecompanies,includingtheemployees,creditors,suppliers,,mpany,themanagersofthecompanyshouldalsobeaccountabletoth,theemployeesparticipateinmakingmajoroperatingdecisionsfortheircompaniesandexercisesupervisionovertheseniormanagersbyelectingtheirrepresentativesintothesupervisoryboards(boardsofdirectors),000people,halfofthemembersofthesupervisoryboardshouldbeelectedbythepartiesrepresentingcapitalandtheotherhalfbytheemployees.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.马可波罗体育

    马可波罗体育,,privateenterprisesaccountforthemajority,%ofallcompaniesinthesurvey;ifgroupedbyscale,smallfirmswithlessthan500employeesaccountforthemost,%ofthetotal;ifgroupedbyexportdestination,exportersorientedtoEurope,otherregions,US,%,%,%%,respectively;ifgroupedbyindustry,enterprisesinfood,mechanicalequipment,%,%%,,%,whichranksthetopintermsofthenumberoffirmsinthesurvey;firmsinJiangsuProvincefollownext,%.hesurveyresultsandcomparisonwiththeresultsfromthesurveysinthisspring(fortheperiodofJantoMay,2015)andlastfall(fortheperiodofJantoOct,2014),severalfeaturesinexportgrowthofthesurveyedcompaniesfortheperiodofJantoOctober,ievingincreaseinexportThesurveyresultsshowthat13%ofthefirmshaveexportgrowthfromJantoOctoberthisyear(includingonegroupwithgrowthrateof5%to19%,andanothergroupwithover20%growth,respectively);36%ofthecompaniesmaintainbasicallyunchangedgrowth,while51%seeadeclineinexports(includingonegroupwithadeclineof5%to19%,andanotherwithadeclineofover20%).Comparedwiththeprevioustwosurveys,muchmorecompaniesreportdeclinedexportsinthissurveythaninlastfallandthisspring,andmuchfewerreportexportgrowththaninlastfallandthisspring;SimilarnumberofcompanriodofJanuarytoOctober,u%medium-sizedcompaniesseeexportgrowthintheperiodofJantoOctoberof2015,whichisbithigherthanthepercentageofsmallexporters;%ofthemedium-sizedcompaniesseedeclinedexports,,muchfewersmallandmedium-sizedcompaniesseeexportgrowththanthoseinthesurveysoflastfallandthisspring;muchmoresmallandmedium-sizedcompanieshavedeclinedexportthanthoseinthesurveysoflastfallandthisspring;thenumberofsmallfirmsreportingunchangedexportisslightlylowerthanthatinlastfallandthisspring,whilethenumberofmedium-sizedfirmsreportingu,theexportsituationforthesmallandmedium-sizedcompaniesinthissurveydeteriorates,%ofthecompaniesinmetalandmetalproductindustryseeexportgrowth,apercentagelowerthanotherindustries;%ofthecompaniesinthisindustryseedeclinedexports,,muchfewerfirmsinallindustriesseeexportgrowththanlastfallandthisspring,andm,otherBRICScountriesandJapanhavearelativelygreaterstressofdeclinedexportsAsfewcompaniesexportingtoASEAN,ChinaHongKong,ChinaMacao,ChinaTaiwan,andKoreaareincludedinthissurvey,,ourfocusofcomparisonisoncompaniesexportingtoEurope,otherBRICScountries,,%,%,%ofthecompaniesexportingtoEurope,otherBRICScountriesandJapanreportrespectivelythattheyhaveanincreaseinexports,whichallarelowerthanthepercentageoffirmsexportingtotheUS;%,%and55%firmsexportingtoEurope,otherBRICScountriesandJapanreportrespectivelyadecreaseinexports,,fewerfirmsreportexportgrowthinallmarketsthanthisspring,whilemoresurveyfJantoOctoberof2015,%ofthecompaniesseeariseorasharpriseinthepricesoftheirexportproducts,bothbeinglowerthanthepercentageinlastfallandthisspring;%ofthefirmsreportstableprices,higherthanlastfallandthisspring;%ofthefirmsreportapricedecline,,ll,,intheperiodofJantoOctoberthisyear,%ofthefirmsreportahighprofitrate,whichisalowerpercentagethanlastfallandthisspring;%oftherespondentssaytheymaintaintheirprofitrateatsomewhatlowandverylowlevels,whichisasmallerpercentagethanthatinlastfallandthisspring;%ofthecompaniesreportabreak-evenperformance,%saytheysufferaloss,eyshows,%ofthecompaniesreporttheyhavea“sharprise”,a“slightrise”inexportordersintheperiodofJantoOctoberthisyear;%reporttheyhavea“slightdecline”anda“sharpdecline”,muchfewerfirmsreportanincreaseinexportorders,andmuchmorereportadecreaseinexportorders,whichshowsthedeterioratingsituationofexporters’,%,;%,,whichindicatesatoughersituationforsmallfirmsinthefuture.

    Notes:(1),(3),(2),(5)and(7)representpercentagevs.(1);(4),(6)and(8)representproportionvs.(2).Datasources:STATEMENTOFBALANCEOFPAYMENTSbySAFEDuringthe1982-1999period,foreigncapitalreceiptsandpayments(balance),,%,China’scapitalsinflowisinnetterms,andthehugesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpay,FDIinChinarepresentsthelargestelementforitssurplus,,accountingfor81%,FDIisnotonlythegreatestelementforthesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsbutalsothebaseforasustainedsurplusofFDIforalongtime,contributingagreatdealtothegeneralsurplusofChina,anetincreaseisshowninChinasoverseasissuanceofequitysecuritiesandbonds,indi,duringthe1982-1999periodthenetin,%ofthesurplusofforeigncapitals,an,however,adeficitwasrecordedduringthe1996-1999period,mainlyduetoadrasticfallinthesurplusofliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentinthatperiod,,therefore,thatliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentasonesourceofforeigncapitalhavealimitedstimulativeroleinachievi,%ofthebalanceofallforeigncapitalreceiptsandpayments,%ofthetotalsurplusinthebalanceofcapitalreceiptsandpayments,(-),however,,thesurplusofotherinv%ofthatofforeigncapitalsandbeingoneofthethreegr,anditspercentageinthesurplusofforeigncapitalsreducedto45%.Andduringthe1996-1999periodthesurplusofliabilitiesismuchsmallerthanthesurplusofassetsinsize,withitspercentageinthebalanceofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsfallingto5-6%.Thatmeans,duringtheabove-mentionedtwoperiods,theroleofo,becauseotherinvestmentasaformofintroducingforeigncapitalisusuallysmallerthantheincreaseofassetsinsize,,otherinvestmentisanuncertainfactoraffectingthebalanceofforeigncapitalsandcapitalaccountswhenforeigncapitals(mainlytrade-relatedcredits)areutilizedinsuchform,anditsdrasticdecreaseintimesofuncertaineconomicgrowthmorethanoftengivesrisetoadeficitinotherinvestmentreceiptsandpaymentsandeveninthebalanceofcapitalaccounts....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ChengXiushengResearchReportNo238,2000Intheearlydaysofitsdriveofreformandopening-up,Chinagrantedpreferentialpolicytreatmentandsupporttotheprivatesectorforthepurposeofchangingthesituationofunitaryownership,andthereforeprelimi,thenon-Statesectorshiphasforerunthestatesect,thenon-publicsectorhasgrowntoaconsiderablesize,resultinginasituationofco-developmentoftheState,,theprivatesectorh,China’sprivateengofthestateeconomy(characterizedbytheadvancementofsomeoftheseenterprisesandwithdrawalofsomeothers)callfortheprivana’sentryintoWTO,thecountry’’snationaleconomy,thefulfillmentofitsthird-stepstrategicgoalofeconomicdevelopment,anditsattainmentofthelevelofmoderatelydevelopedcountriesinthemiddleofthenextcentury,theprivatesec,itisnecessarytokeepproper’sprivateeconomyhasalwaysmaintaineditstrendofrapidgrowthsinceChina’,thenumberofregi,thenumberoftheem,,and’snationaleconomyatthefastestspeed,theprivatesectorhasplayedaremarkableroleinspurringtherapidgrowthoftheChina’seconomyandgainedthefollowingbasiccharacteristics:----DeparturefromthephaseofprimitiveaccumulationandgrowthtoafairlyconsiderableeconomicsizeasawholeAsgenerallyreferredtoineconomicdocuments,theprivateeconomicsectorcoversmainlyprivateenterprises,theeconomicsectorofindividualownership,andcompaniesdevelopedfromprivateenterprisesinausualsense,mmerce,,thetotalregisteredcapitaloftheseenterprisesreachedRMB1,,,individually-runind,,,employmentofworkersandgenerationoftotaloutput,theprivatesectorhasnowgainedaroughly10-20percentshareofChina’snationaleconomyandbecomeanimprofnon-Stateownership,theprivateeconomicsectorhasnowtakenupashareofmorethan60percentofandgainedadominantpositioninChina’snationaleconomyintermsofquantity.----Animportantroleininvestment,employment,taxpayment,foreignexchangeearning,andscientificandtechnicaldevelopmentInvestmentbytheprivateeconomicsectornowaccountsforabout15-20percentandthatbynon-Stateeconomicsectorincludingtheeconomicsectorofcollectiv,thesectorasawholeearnedUS$,whileprivately-runindustrincehasnowbecomeanimportantfactorwithadirectbearingonthehealthyperformanceofChina’,theyhaveundergonethreephasesofdevelopmentinChina--thephaseofbudding,thephaseofaccelerateddevelopmentandthephaseofmaturity,,thenumberofprivately-runscientificandtechnicalenterpriseshasnowgrownto200,,theseenterprisesearnedRMB1,000billioninrevenuefromtechnicalandindustrialprojectsandtrade,,andUS$----Withenlargedaveragesizeofcapitalandenhancedstrength,anumberofprivateenterprisesaredevelopingtowardsascaleeconomyBytheendof1999,theaverageregisteredcapitaloftheprivateenterprisesinChinareachedoverRMB680,000,morethanfivetimestheamountofRMB98,1millionhit200,000,about73,millionwas17,000(figuresended1998),andthosewhoseregisteredcapitalsurpassedRMB10millionnumbered9,,,,’sprivateenterpriseshasgrowncons马可波罗体育

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    李建志

    冷床

    ByZhangChenghui,Director-GeneraloftheResearchInstituteforFinance,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo106,2013(Total4355)ftheFinancialIndustryIfcategorizingisdoneintermsoftheintensityoffactorinputsandtheindustriesareclassifiedaslabor-intensive,capital-intensive,technology-intensiveandknowledge-intensive,thenthefinancialindustryisdeemedasa"contract-intensiveindustry".Asaspecialservicesector,thefinancialindustryrelatestocontractualarrangementsbeingfarmoreintensiveandcomplicatedthanotherindustriesinproductionandtradingoffinancialproducts,whicharemorevulnerableto"informationasymmetry"and"ethicalrisks".Hence,ifsoundenvironmentsforensuringthecontractimplementationarefewandfarbetween,riskswillincreasesubstantially,thusaffectinginvestorsinformationandtheirtradingaspirations,,,bankruptcylawsofIndonesia,SouthKorea,ThailandandRussiawerenotallcarriedoutstrictly,leavingcreditorsinterestsunprotected,andmalfunctioningenterprisesorfinancialptionoftheongoinginternationalfinancialcrisis:ononehand,withtheexplosivedevelopmentofthefinancialderivatives,loopholesappearagainstconsumerprotection;ontheotherhand,theissueof"toobigtofail(TBTF)"isquitetangibleindevelopedcountries,cialinfrastructureofacountryshouldincludelegalenvironment,dlegalenvironmentcanrelationsamongvariousstakeholder,namely,perfectlegalsystem,effectiveexecutivesystemandreason,thelegalsystemshouldbewellestablis,thelegalsystemshouldalsokeeppacewiththetimesandbeadjustedint,afair,justandefficientfinancialdisputehearingandarbitrationmechanismshouldbesetupunancialdisput,theviewpointofestablishingani,pilotcourtshavebeensetupinShanghai,Henan,,theInternationalFinancialArbitrationCourtbegantooperateinHague,specializinginofferingarbitrationservicesfordisputesarisin,financialsupervis,hiddenillegalconductsanddifficultyinobtainingevidencethroughinvestigationfeaturefinancialtransactions,plusfinancialinvestorsbeingrelativelyscattered,thenumberofsmallandmediuminvestorsbeinghugeandtheclassactionmechanismbeingimperfectandincompleteinChina,therefore,itisnecessarytoprovidefinancialsupervisionandregulationdepartmentswithnecessaryrightstoenforcethelaws,suchasthequeryrights,,theserightsmustbemoderateandreasonable,sinformationasymmetryandconstructthelong-actingconstraintandincentivemechanismforborrowersForeignexperienceshowsthatinformationdisclosureislessdemandedwhenstockholdersconcentraterelativelyand,conversely,:Asmallnumberofbigshareholdersarefarmorecapableofacquiringand,accurateandtimelyinformationdisclosureisneededtohelpt,indirect-financing-orientedeconomieshavelesserpressureofdisclosinginformationtothepublic,while,Chinaismakingeffortstoboostthetransformationfromtheinvestment-drivenandscale-centeredextensiveeconomicgrowthpatterntotheinnovation-dr,callsforthemajoreffortstodevelopingserviceindustriesandsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,,;(includingpubliccompanies,yettheimplementationstandardisdifferentfromthatoflistedcompanies),,listedandunlistedpubliccompaniestaketheinitiativeindisclosingnecessaryfinancialandbusinessope,thepassivedisclosuresystemiscarriedout,namely,informationiscollectedandcompiledunderthecreditreferencesystem,andinformationoninquirysubjectsare,theobjectiveandspecializedthird-partycommentsarevitalimportancetothesystem.马可波罗体育Source:(MSEs)facedamoresternexportsituationthanlargeandsmall-sizedenterprises(LSEsandSSEs).Accordingtothepresentsurveyresults,betweenJanuaryandMaythisyear,%ofMSEssawanexportincrease,;%ofMSEssufferedanexportdecline,ssituation,thenumberofvarioustypesofenterprisesthatsufferedanexportdeclinehadincreased,andMSEsevensufferedasharperdecline,,,,%,lowerthanthatofotherindustriessurveyed;%,,rtwassignificantlyhigherthanlastyearssurveyresults,insuchindustriesasfood,textilesgarments,materialsandmachinerythe,wherethenumberofenterprisesreportinganexportincreasewas,,,thenumberofenterpriseswithanincreasedexporttoEuropeandrelevantregionswasabove50%,higherthantheexporttoothermajormarkets;thenumberofenterprises%%,ssurveyresults,thenumberofenterpriseswithadecreasedexporttovariousregionshadincreasedsignificantly,butthenumberofenterpriseswithanincreasedexporttoEurope,theUS,HongKong,Macau,,thenumberofenterpriseswitha,thos,thenumberofenterprisesreportinganexportgrowthwasabove50%inShanxi,HunanandSichuan,higherthanthatinBeijing,Guangdong,Fujianintheeasternregion;thenumberofenterpriseswithadecreasedexportinShanxi,Chongqing,HunanandSichussurveyresults,thepresentsurveyrevealsthatthenumberofenterpriseswithadecreasedexporthadrisenconsiderablyinBeijingandGuangdong,,thenumberofenterprisesrecordinganincreasedexportwasslightlyhigherinGuangdong,,materialsandmachineryindustrieswe%oftherespondentsreportedanupwardtrendofexportcostbetweenJanuaryandMaythisyear,ssurveyresults;theproportionofrespondentswithbasicallyunchangedordecreased(slightlydecreasedandsignificantlydecreased),thepressureofrisingcostsustainedbyexportenterpriseshadbeeneasedtosomeextent.

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